ARM’s Cortex A53: Tiny But Important

Tech enthusiasts probably know ARM as a company that develops reasonably performant CPU architectures with a focus on power efficiency. Product lines like the Cortex A7xx and Cortex X series use well balanced, moderately sized out-of-order execution engines to achieve those goals. But ARM…

Shader Execution Reordering: Nvidia Tackles Divergence

In a previous article, we covered Cyberpunk 2077’s “Overdrive” raytracing mode. Rasterization and raytracing are both parallelizable, but raytracing tends to be less predictable. That makes it difficult for GPUs to bring their full parallel processing power to bear. Divergence is one such culprit.…

Cyberpunk 2077’s Path Tracing Update

Hardware raytracing acceleration has come a long way since Nvidia’s Turing first introduced the technology. Even with these hardware advances, raytracing is so expensive that most games have stuck to very limited raytracing effects, if raytracing is used at all. However, some technology demos…

AMD’s 7950X3D: Zen 4 Gets VCache

Compute performance has been held back by memory performance for decades, with DRAM performance falling even further behind with every year. Caches compensate for this by trying to keep frequently used data closer to the CPU core. As DRAM performance became more and more…

Codecs for the 4K Era: HEVC, AV1, VVC and Beyond

This article was written in March 2023. At the time of writing, the encoders we used were still in active development. As codec standards and encoders evolve, some of the information may become outdated. A Turning Point for Codecs For the longest time, MPEG…

Loongson’s 3A5000: China’s Best Shot?

We at Chips and Cheese have covered two Chinese CPU architectures: Zhaoxin’s x86 compatible Lujiazui architecture found in the KX-6000 series of CPUs and Phytium’s ARM compatible FT663 architecture found in the D2000 series of CPUs. Zhaoxin was founded in 2013 as a joint…

AMD’s HD 6950 vs RX 6900 XT: What Does Adding 50 Do?

Note the publish day of this article. There will be a proper one on Terascale 3 later on, don’t worry. But for now, happy April Fools Day! Prestige is everything for computer hardware manufacturers. A few percentage points may not make or break someone’s…

Sapphire Rapids: Golden Cove Hits Servers

Last year, Intel’s Golden Cove brought the company back to competitive against AMD. Unfortunately for Intel, that only applied to the client space. AMD’s Rome and Milan CPUs have steadily eroded Intel’s server dominance. With the bulk of recently added systems on TOP500 using…

Van Gogh, AMD’s Steam Deck APU

Zen 2’s launch was a defining moment for AMD. For the first time in many, many years, AMD’s single thread performance could go head to head with Intel’s best. Zen 2 also started a trend where AMD brought up to 16 cores to desktop…

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